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AirStack Sandbox

This document is an overview of AirStack Sandbox, which is an environment where custom FPGA designs compatible with AirStack software can be created.

AirStack Sandbox Diagram


The license file is included with the download of AirStack Sandbox and may be found on our docs page here.


  • An AIR-T with software the corresponding version of AirStack installed for the version of AirStack Sandbox you are using
  • A host machine with the following:
    • AirStack Sandbox downloaded from the Developer Portal at
    • Vivado 2019.2 installed.
    • Xilinx JESD204 Core License.
      • Confirm jesd204 license visibility in Vivado through Help > Manager License...
      • JESD204 evaluation licenses are compatible with AirStack Sandbox. However per Xilinx documentation: "the generated bitstream contains circuitry that disables the design after 2 to 8 hours of operation at the typical clock rate for the core. The actual duration of the operational period varies on a core-by-core basis. To start the device working again, you must reload the bitstream (reset or reprogram the device)."

AirStack Sandbox Contents

  • - Top level of the design, instantiates the Deepwave Digital IP core, AXI4-Lite registers, and a default pass through of samples back to the Deepwave Digital IP core.
  • - An example generated AXI4-Lite register space.
  • - A test script for the AXI4-Lite register space.
  • check_timing.tcl - A supplemental script for Vivado requiring timing to be met by default.
  • dwd_ip - Location of Deepwave Digital IP files.
  • AIR-T_7101 - AIR-T 7101 product specific Vivado files.
  • AIR-T_7201 - AIR-T 7201 product specific Vivado files.
  • AIR-T_8201 - AIR-T 8201 product specific Vivado files.
  • sandbox_diagram.eps - High level block diagram of AirStack Sandbox environment.

Getting Started

  1. Ensure the prerequisite requirements have been met.
  2. In the directory where AirStack Sandbox was downloaded extract the AirStack_Sandbox_<version>.tar.gz archive:
    $ tar xvf AirStack_Sandbox_<version>.tar.gz
  3. There are three Vivado projects in the newly created AirStack_Sandbox_ directory. Use Vivado to open the project corresponding to your AIR-T model.
    • AIR-T_7101/dwd.xpr - AIR7101 Model (XC7A75T FPGA)
    • AIR-T_7201/dwd.xpr - AIR7201 Model (XC7A200T FPGA)
    • AIR-T_8201/dwd.xpr - AIR8201 Model (XC7A200T FPGA)
  4. Open the Vivado project and click the Generate Bitstream button to confirm the full Vivado synthesis and implementation flow functions as expected. The resulting bitstream is compatible with tests mentioned in below sections. (see later sections for expected Vivado build messages).

Loading AirStack Sandbox Bitstreams onto the AIR-T

  1. On the AIR-T, load the bitstream file into FPGA bitstream flash memory.
    $ load_flash -i 1 top_dwd.bit
    Note: The load_flash utility will not recognize custom Sandbox builds and will report that the contents of your .bit file are UNKNOWN. This is OK.
  2. Shutdown, unplug the power supply to the AIR-T, and plug it back in. The FPGA will only read from the flash memory after a full power cycle.
  3. Once powered on the AIR-T will load the bitstream from flash and configure the FPGA.

  4. On the AIR-T run the following to verify the bitstream was loaded successfully:

    $ SoapySDRUtil --find
    which should return a found AIR-T device with Development Build firmware and correct hardware matching your AIR-T product:
    Found device 0
      driver = SoapyAIRT
      driver_version = X.X.X-X
      firmware_version = Development Build
      fpga_driver_version = X.X.X-X
      hardware = ??01
      rf_api_version = X.X.X-X
      url =
      vendor = Deepwave Digital, Inc.
    If any problems are encountered please follow steps for firmware recovery.


JTAG can be used for debug (i.e. Chipscope), standard development, and factory firmware recovery/reset. Please see the firmware recovery documentation for how to connect to the AIR-T's JTAG port.

When loading bitstreams into flash memory over JTAG the following information can be used with Vivado Hardware Manager's Tools > Generate Memory Configuration File... dialog:

  • Format: MCS
  • Memory Part: s25fl256sxxxxxx0-spi-x1_x2_x4
  • SPIx4

Testing the Initial Bitstream

Radio Samples Data Path

The AirStack Sandbox FPGA design comes configured for basic radio receive and transmit functionality.

The primary method of communicating to/from the RF hardware (including the FPGA) on the AIR-T is via the SoapyAIRT interface. However, SoapyAIRT assumes several things about the configuration of the FPGA. These assumptions are: 1. All data passed to/from the FPGA are complex 16-bit integer time domain samples. Note that SoapyAIRT also supports complex 32-bit floating point samples, but performs an internal conversion. 2. There are two RX and two TX channels. Any missing RF channels are treated as a fatal error by SoapyAIRT and the software will no longer consider the device an AIR-T. 3. Samples to/from the AD9371 are always transferred at a sample rate of 125 MSPS. See FPGA signal definitions in below sections. No other sample rates are supported without additional interpolation/decimation being added to the FPGA design.

Example - Setting the sample rate to 125 MSPS for a receiver channel using SoapyAIRT:

rx_chan = 0                                   # RX1 = 0, RX2 = 1
fs = 125.0e6                                  # Sample rate fixed to 125msps
sdr.setSampleRate(SOAPY_SDR_RX, rx_chan, fs)  # Set sample rate

If your FPGA design is straightforward and meets the above assumptions, the SoapyAIRT interface should work well.

Please see the following SoapyAIRT examples as a starting point for your application code:

For more complex interactions with the FPGA that break any of SoapyAIRT's assumptions, it is highly recommended to communicate with the DMA and transceiver device drivers directly. Please contact Deepwave support for code examples and further documentation.

Register Read + Write Test

The AirStack Sandbox FPGA design comes configured with an AXI4-Lite register space. See FPGA AXI signal definitions in below sections.

A test script is included that demonstrates reading and writing those FPGA registers using SoapyAIRT.

  • Run using the following command (no additional arguments required):

    $ python3

  • The test attempts to read and write all the allocated register space. For the subset of the address range currently in use write values are compared to read values to confirm registers are functioning correctly.

    Testing allocated FPGA register address space...
    Starting at address=0x0
    Ending at address=0x1FFFF
    Test passed.

SoapySDR Time API Functionality

AirStack Sandbox does not support the SoapySDR Time API for precise timing of transmit and receive samples.

To use Time API functionality, SoapyAIRT expects to see an FPGA configured with Deepwave's standard AirStack firmware image. Designs produced from AirStack Sandbox only support basic receive and transmit SoapySDR functionality as described above.

Signal Definitions

The names referenced here are from

Clock and Reset:

  • dwd_axi_clk - 125MHz clock for the AXI4-Lite interface provided by the Deepwave Digital IP core.
  • dwd_axi_aresetn - AXI4-Lite interface reset, active low, asynchronous.
  • dwd_axis_clk - 125MHz clock for all AXI4-Stream interfaces provided by the Deepwave Digital IP core.
  • dwd_rx_axis_rst[1:0] - AXI4-Stream receive datapath resets, per channel, active high, synchronous.
  • dwd_tx_axis_rst[1:0] - AXI4-Stream transmit datapath resets, per channel, active high, synchronous.

AXI4-Lite Interface

  • dwd_m_axil_* - AXI4-Lite bus for provided register space.
  • dwd_axil_regs - An example generated AXI4-Lite register space module.

The total address space available on this AXI4-Lite bus is 128Kb (17b addresses from 0x00000000 - 0x0001FFFF). The example register space instantiates 32 four byte (32b) registers, occupying addresses 0x00000000 - 0x0000007C.

Please refer to the AXI reference guide.

AXI4-Stream Interfaces

Serial 16b IQ samples pairs are in decoded from the 32b AXI4-Stream word as follows:

I = tdata[15:0];
Q = tdata[31:16];

All interfaces are in AXI4-Stream format with some limitations, as described below.

Please refer to the AXI reference guide.

AXI4-Stream Limitations

  • tuser and tstrb signals are not present nor supported.
  • tkeep signals are present but not supported by the software driver. It is required that all 32 bits of the 32b tdata signal are set and valid for each beat.
  • Optional tdest and tid signals are not present. These signals are used for multiplexing multiple logical streams over a single bus interface. Each of our AXI4-Stream interfaces represents a single logical stream, mapped one-to-one to a stream presented to software by the DMA controller.


  • dwd_rx*_m_axis_* - Output stream of samples received from the radio. There is no buffering behind this interface. Constant flow control ready is assumed, deasserting dwd_rx0|1_m_axis_tready drops dwd_rx0|1_m_axis_tdata samples.
  • dwd_rx*_s_axis_* - Input stream of samples for DMA read. Flow control dwd_rx0|1_s_axis_tready is asserted as DMA reads occur.


  • dwd_tx*_m_axis_* - Output stream of samples from DMA write. Stream dwd_tx0|1_m_axis_tvalid is asserted as DMA writes occur.
  • dwd_tx*_s_axis_* - Input stream of samples transmitted to the radio. A constant stream of samples is expected during transmission. When dwd_tx0|1_s_axis_tvalid is deasserted and does not provide new samples for transmit recent dwd_tx0|1_s_axis_data samples continue to be transmitted until dwd_tx0|1_s_axis_tvalid is asserted again (or the radio is turned off).

Expected Vivado Build Messages

Upon successful bitstream creation Vivado will report many messages. Expected messages have been documented in spreadsheets exported by Vivado.

  • AIR7101 Model (XC7A75T FPGA) Project:
  • Synthesis: 41 Critical Warnings, 350 warnings. Implementation: 188 Warnings.
  • AIR-T_7101/expected_vivado_messages.xlsx

  • AIR7201 Model (XC7A200T FPGA) Project:

  • Synthesis: 41 Critical Warnings, 350 warnings. Implementation: 188 Warnings.
  • AIR-T_7201/expected_vivado_messages.xlsx

  • AIR8201 Model (XC7A200T FPGA) Project:

  • Synthesis: 46 Critical Warnings, 351 warnings. Implementation: 188 Warnings.
  • AIR-T_8201/expected_vivado_messages.xlsx

Last update: April 12, 2024